Ecosystem And Its structure

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what is ecosystem

Ecology is the science that deals with the relationships between living organisms
with their physical environment and with each other. The ecosystem is the basic
functional unit in ecology.

let learn,

The ecosystem is a specific and recognizable landscape form
such as – Forest, Grassland, Desert, Wetland or Coastal area, etc. Term “Ecosystem”
was coined by A. G. Tansley (1935
An ecosystem consists of an assembly of the mutually interacting of the organisms and their
environment in which materials are in interchanged in a largely cyclical manner of the. An
ecosystem has physical, and chemical, and biological components along with energyThe environment in which a particular organism life is called its habit
called its niche. It is a self-regulated system.known with different names biocoenosis,
microcosm, Ecocosm, holocoen
Definition: ( E. P. Odum) – The ecosystem is the basic functional unit of an organism
and the environment, interacting with each other and with their own components.
(G. Tansley) – The system resulting from the integration of all living and non-living
factors of the environment. And Its structure |concept| Defention - Gulf Nature/

Ecosystem classification / Type.

I. Natural Ecosystem- Operated under the natural condition without any major
interference by man.
1. Terrestrial ecosystem
1. Occurs in landmasses, 29% of earth surface
2. Major source of food and material for a human being
3. Water is a limiting factor
4. more productive than the aquatic system
5. Example land, mountain, plains, etc
6. Biome:- Grassland, forest, desert, etc.
(Biome- Whole complex of plant-animal of the spatial unit )
2. Aquatic Ecosystem:-
I. Freshwater- Standing water called lentic water,i.e. pond,
ditch, Reservior
ii. Lotic water moving water i.e. River, spring, stream
II Ocean (Marine) ecosystem:- salty water is character.

it having two categories shallow water & deep water ocean ecosystem
Artificial Ecosystem- Maintained artificially by man whereby
the addition of energy and planned manipulation. In this ecosystem natural balance is
disturbed regularly, e.g. Crops lands like Maize, wheat, rice fields, etc., constructed
dams, spacecraft, aquarium, etc
, Diagrammatic representation of any basic unit of the ecosystem of the biosphere
“Shows that earth itself a vast ecosystem (biosphere). Where abiotic & biotic
components constantly acting & reacting upon each other.


The biosphere has various small ecosystems. Forest, desert, grassland, cropland, freshwater, marine, etc. These
usually an open system with continuous, but variable influx & loss of materials &
energy. Ecosystems have coupling components to form functional units, as energy
processing units. Which is restrained or limited by the number of nutrients & water
available to it.
Two major aspects of the ecosystem- Structure of Ecosystem include quantity &
distribution of non-living materials, the composition of biological community & range of
conditions of existence. An ecosystem can be any size small pond to the entire world.
ecosystem concept is flexible and broad.

It can apply to any situation where organism
function together with their nonliving environment in such a way that energy and
material interchange is possible. This matter and energy use to build, to reproduce, and to maintain internal energy. Material elements constitute life forms are carbon,
nitrogen, oxygen, etc, they are available in the lithosphere & available for the biosphere through
plants. The role that organism takes in the ecosystem is known ecological niche
-While the function of the Ecosystem means energy flow, nutrient cycles & ecological
regulation. And Its structure |concept| Defention - Gulf Nature/
Structure of the Ecosystem
major components.

1. Energy component

2. Abiotic

3  Biotic

Energy component:- All life forms require energy, solar energy is used by plants

and through photosynthesis and respiration food is produced and made available to

other living beings.

Abiotic Also known as a non-living component – Three parts
a) Inorganic substances– Includes Water. Minerals & Gases
b) Organic substances- Includes Nucleic acid, Amino acid, Carbohydrate^ Protein fat

Lipids e) Physical factors– Includes Climatic, Edaphic & Topographic factors

There are) Light -Provide solar energy for heating.

ii) Rainfall- Determine type terrestrial ecosystem i.e. evergreen forest, grassland


iii) Wind- Control weather, transpiration, pollination.

iv) Humidity– Inversely related to transpiration.
v) Temperature– Four life zones on basis of temperature rangeTropical-Hot throughout year

Subtropical-Hot during summer & cold during winter

Temperate- Pleasant summer & cold winter with occasional snow
Arctic or Alpine- Show throughout the year except for brief summer
vi) Topography- Plain, slope, valley
vii) Soil- Texture, PH, fertility determine the type of vegetation.

2. Biotic component.

(Living component)-Represent animals and microorganisms
The category is the trophic structure of the ecosystem; living organisms are distributed on their
nutritional relationship.
A) Autotrophic component- Known as Producer. Organism fixes light energy, use
simple inorganic substances & build up complex substances.
-Mainly constituted by green plants, Phototrophs:-photosynthetic & chemosynthetic
bacteria. “Ecosystem And Its structure “
B) Heterotrophic component- Known as Consumers. In this category utilization,
rearrangement & decomposition of complex materials.
i) Micro consumers- Known as Decomposers, Saprotrophs/ saprophyte.- Organisms
break down complex compounds of the dead plants and the animals. Absorb some
decomposition products. Release inorganic nutrients in the environment. Making them
available to autotrophs i. e. plant, Spirogyra. e.g. bacteria, fungi.

ii) Macro consumers- this includes animals.

Further classified into
a) Herbivores- Animals that directly obtain food from plants by eating their parts.
Also called First-order consumers or Primary consumers. Transform vegetable
matter into animals matter. Hence called Key industry animals, e. g. Herbivorous fish,
grasshopper, field mouse, rabbit, goat, deer, horse, cow, buffalo, etc.

b) Carnivores– Also called Omnivores. Animals that catch hold of their praise & feed
on their flesh. “Ecosystem And Its structure”
i) Primary carnivores or Second-order consumers- Predator animals which
prey upon herbivores, e. g. Toad, Frog, Spider.

ii) Secondary carnivores or Third order consumers- Predator animals which
feed on primary carnivores, e. g. Snake on Frog, Wolf preying upon Fox.
iii) Tertiary carnivores or Top carnivores- Which prey upon other carnivores
but are not themselves eaten by others. They constitute the terminal & end of
the predator or grazing food chain, e. g. Lion, Tiger

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